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Living in a VUCA World

By Marco Imperiale

If I were to choose a word to describe the world we live in, I would go for VUCA. This acronym, which stands for Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous, represents quite accurately the world we inhabit today[1]. The concept was firstly developed by professors Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus in their book “Leaders. The strategies for Taking Change”[2]; later, it spread in the military industry and gained significant traction in the business and leadership context[3]. It is mostly used to describe the challenges and conditions that organizations, leaders, and individuals face in our rapidly changing and unpredictable world.

From geopolitical tensions to climate crisis, from reverse mentoring to exponential innovation, from artificial intelligence to new paradigms for the society we live in, most aspects of our lives are affected by a constant spiral of change. In this article, I will discuss what this acronym means and why it is important for the legal profession, providing practical takeaways in order to face these challenges (or at least limit the damages).

Each Letter Has a Meaning

Each aspect of the VUCA acronym requires thorough analysis:

  • V means Volatility. Volatility refers to the nature and dynamics of change, signifying the speed and unpredictability with which situations, markets, or environments can shift. Volatile conditions can lead to sudden disruptions, requiring organizations and leaders to be flexible and agile in decision-making.

  • U means Uncertainty. Uncertainty relates to the lack of predictability and clarity about future events or outcomes. In VUCA environments, forecasting or anticipating events is limited, making planning and strategizing more challenging, and requiring more adaptability.

  • C means Complexity. Complexity encompasses the intricacy and interdependence of various factors within a system. In VUCA situations, issues can be multifaceted and difficult to fully comprehend. They demand a systemic approach and deeper understanding of relationships between components.

  • A means Ambiguity. Ambiguity involves the haziness or multiple interpretations of information and events. VUCA environments often lack clear cause-and-effect relationships, making interpretation and confident decision-making difficult. Leaders must operate with incomplete data and take calculated risks.

VUCA and the Legal Profession

How would the VUCA concept resonate in the legal market and in the legal profession? Providing a clear answer is not easy, also because the four concepts tend to overlap. A regulatory change impacts volatility or complexity? The management of policies for Gen Z professionals relates to uncertainty or ambiguity? And what about technological innovation? In this analysis, I tried to notice three ways each factor impacts the legal scenario.


  • Rapid Advancements. In a world where technological advancements occur at a breakneck pace, legal professionals must stay abreast of new developments. This may include understanding new technologies that influence laws or regulations, such as blockchain, cybersecurity, or data governance, but also taking into account how technology impacts current practices (from m&a to banking and finance or litigation).

  • Different Clients’ Preferences. Clients' expectations are evolving rapidly. They demand more transparent, efficient, and personalized legal services, and they are more interested in the processes that lead to legal advice. Adapting to these preferences requires an agile approach and may involve leveraging technology to provide more accessible and client-centric services.

  • Stagnation without Innovation. In such a volatile environment, there are consequence also for lawyers and law firms that do not innovate, who may find themselves falling behind. Stagnation can lead to loss of clients, decreased relevance in the market, and ultimately, a decline in business.


  • An Evolving Regulatory Scenario. The legal landscape is often affected by changing regulations and laws. For instance, new regulations around AI, antitrust laws, or environmental protections may create a shifting terrain that requires constant vigilance and adaptability. However, legal updates are way more and way faster than in the past, and fear of missing out is becoming a constant despite the practice.

  • Unpredictable Factors. Beyond regulation, there are other unpredictable factors, such as political changes, economic fluctuations, and social dynamics, which can lead to massive uncertainty. This requires legal professionals to have a broad understanding of various fields and to be prepared to respond swiftly to unexpected changes.

  • Fierce Competition. The legal market is becoming increasingly competitive, and the competition is not only related to law firms. Whether it is alternative legal service providers, a.i. platforms, or other technological solutions, the market we know is evolving rapidly and, most of the times, differently than the way we expect.


Intricate Problems. Modern legal problems can be highly complex, often involving multiple jurisdictions, intricate contractual obligations, or sophisticated relationship among parties. On the other hand, we are required to provide our advice in a fast-paced scenario, leveraging on our deep knowledge base, strong analytical skills, and the ability to synthesize large amounts of information quickly.

Interdisciplinarity. VUCA times demand a multi-disciplinary approach. This – most of the times, does not mean only different lawyers working together, but also a collaboration with experts in other fields (such as engineers, software developers, designers, economists, psychologists, etc.)

Merging tendency. It is noticeable in the market a relevant shift towards merging – whether it is two big law firms, several professionals combining different practices, or a solo practitioner looking for a full-service to join. The main reason of this trend is facing complex scenarios with interdisciplinary teams – benefitting on different backgrounds, methods of operation, and points of view on specific projects.


  • Blurriness. Ambiguity in the legal context may come from vague laws, conflicting precedents, or unclear client expectations. Legal professionals must have the ability to interpret unclear or contradictory information, and adapt their strategies accordingly.

  • Different interpretations. Laws and regulations can sometimes be open to multiple interpretations as well. This requires a nuanced understanding, strong critical thinking skills, and the ability to navigate and argue various interpretations to serve the client's interests best.

  • Unclear Data. In some cases, the information available may be incomplete or conflicting. Legal professionals must develop the skills to work with imperfect data, make reasoned judgments, and be prepared to pivot as new information becomes available.

How to face a VUCA world

Facing the challenges of VUCA requires different skills and approaches than those needed in traditional stable environments. Lawyers and in-house counsels must cultivate adaptability, resilience, creativity, and learn from failures. Strategies should be flexible, iterative, and decision-making distributed across various organizational levels to respond effectively to change.

I tried to analyze the single elements of the VUCA acronym, identifying three simple strategies for each one.

To face volatility

  • Invest in habits. More than developing a goal-oriented mindset, we should work with a habit mindset, which tend to be more reliable, and trackable[4]. Habits can relate to everything, from the way we reply to emails, to the way we organize meetings or answer to client’s request of advice. The more we will be able to have a habit-oriented mindset, the more we will be balanced in an unbalanced world.

  • Analyze what is not going to change. We tend to focus about the aspects that are going to change, but the ones that are not going to change are equally important. What are the things that are not going to change in our profession or firm in a 1, 3, 10 year timeframe?

  • Foster a culture of innovation. We should encourage professionals, business services, and partners to be agile and adaptable, whether investing in research, promoting internal and external flexibility, or constantly adapting to different situation. Only this way we can stay ahead of competitors and swiftly respond to market shifts.

To face uncertainty

  • Invest on processes. I am aware of the fact that lawyers tend not to be process oriented, but the more we can stress the process part, the more we will be able to limit the impact of uncertainty. Processes can help us analyzing deeply our strong assets, intervene on our weaknesses, and – more in general – adopt a more kpi/roi oriented approach.

  • Develop better market research and customer insights. Market research and client feedback can help us gaining insights into changing preferences and emerging trends, allowing us to face client demand in a tailored way. How much do we know about our clients and our markets? Are we spreading the knowledge we have in a homogenous way in our firm? Can we understand not only the services that the clients ask for, but the ones that they really need?

  • Plan different scenarios. Flexible planning,

  • e.g. developing multiple scenarios for potential outcomes and responses, will help us adjust strategies based on emerging information and market dynamics. Maybe we are used to make a budget for the incoming year, which includes potential revenues and cash-flow analysis. How about making three instead of 1, such as worse case scenario, reasonable scenario, and best-case scenario?

To face complexity

  • Invest in simplicity. Leonardo da Vinci used to say that simplicity is the ultimate sophistication, underlying the difficulty of simple processes. Whether it is internal meetings, the management of multiple tasks, or the way we show our associates how to face a specific matter, if there’s one way to do things in an easier way, we should be able to promote it and implement it.

  • Enhance collaboration among departments and professionals. As identified by Heidi Gardner in her two books: “Smart Collaboration” and “Smarter Collaboration”[5] collaboration between departments and experts from different domains to tackle complex challenges will have a positive impact on both kpis and rois. On the other hand, we should take into account that- while collaboration is a significant pro, it is also harder to achieve than we think. Smart collaboration means dedicated resources, openness to negative feedback, and difficult conversations.

  • Learn to prototype. Learning how to prototype solutions and models is a very useful tool in order to challenge complexity. Prototyping can tell us in a faster time which approach works and which doesn’t, what are the strategies that can be successful, and what are the internal and external reactions to our work.

To face ambiguity

  • Embrace clear communication. Clear communication within teams and organizations is a great way to reduce ambiguity and misunderstandings. For example, a partner might conduct regular meetings to clarify objectives and expectations with team members. Or we can organize a follow-up session after the deal to notice the what has worked well and develop/share best practices within our team.

  • Learn how to fail. Encouraging a culture of experimentation and continuous learning means also implementing a "fail fast, learn fast" approach, where teams are encouraged to experiment with new technologies and learn from both successes and failures. We cannot expect every project or lateral hiring to be successful, but we can work to promote a culture where failure is an added value, and not something to be afraid of.

  • Prioritize Ethical Decision-making, In ambiguous situations, we should prioritize ethical decision-making to maintain integrity and trust. We could establish Ethical Guidelines, or a Code of Values, to address gray areas and ensure compliance with legal and ethical standards. Maybe we can promote a reflection regarding our values and our purpose as professionals and as firm. In times of ambiguity, investing on values is always a safe bet.


VUCA elements permeate various aspects of both business and legal industries. Embracing these challenges - continuously adopting new strategies - is key to navigating the complexities and uncertainties effectively. On the other hand, we should remember that our clients are impacted by VUCA times as well. For this reason, volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous situations can offer opportunities to develop collaborations and work together on exciting tasks and projects.

Facing VUCA times require proactive measures, open-mindedness, and adaptability. However, by implementing effective strategies, law firms, in-house department, and professionals can position themselves to thrive in dynamic and unpredictable environments.

As I tend to say, maybe because of my Italian background, the glass is half-full. This is an exciting moment to be a lawyer, and the VUCA scenario offers new opportunities for both old and new generations. Will we be able to ride the tiger?



[1] Levent Işıklıgöz proposed to change the "C" of VUCA from Complexity to Chaos, arguing that it is more suitable according to our era

[2] New York: Harper & Row, 1985

[3] Bill George, professor of management practice at Harvard Business School, developed an acronym to represent a leadership response to VUCA: which he calls VUCA 2.0. V stands for Vision, U for Understanding, C for Courage and A for Adaptability

[4] For an interesting perspective about habits, I would suggest Charles Duhigg’s book “The power of Habit” (Random House, 2012)

[5] H. Gardner “Smart Collaboration: How Professionals and Their Firms Succeed by Breaking Down Silos”, HBR Press, 2017; H. Garder, I. Matviak, “Smarter Collaboration. A New Approach to Breaking Down Barriers and Transforming Work”, HBR Press, 2022


About the Author

Marco is the founder and managing director of Better Ipsum, a consultancy focused on legal design, legal innovation, and legal well-being. He is also a frequent keynote speaker (100+ national and international events). A true legal design and innovation pioneer,

Marco wrote (with Barbara de Muro) the first Italian book on legal design and lectured the course on legal design at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. At Harvard, where he graduated as Fulbright Scholar, he also worked as visiting researcher.

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